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Saturday, 14 September 2013

Java Best Practice – Programming Practices


Providing Access to Instance and Class Variables
Don’t make any instance or class variable public without good reason. Often, instance
variables don’t need to be explicitly set or gotten—often that happens as a side effect of method calls.
One example of appropriate public instance variables is the case where the class is essentially a
data structure, with no behavior. In other words, if you would have used a struct instead of a
class (if Java supported struct), then it’s appropriate to make the class’s instance variables public.

Referring to Class Variables and Methods
Avoid using an object to access a class (static) variable or method. Use a class name instead.
For example:
classMethod(); //OK
AClass.classMethod(); //OK

anObject.classMethod(); //AVOID!

Constants
Numerical constants (literals) should not be coded directly, except for -1, 0, and 1, which can
appear in a for loop as counter values.

Variable Assignments 
Avoid assigning several variables to the same value in a single statement. It is hard to read.
Example:
fooBar.fChar = barFoo.lchar = 'c'; // AVOID!

Do not use the assignment operator in a place where it can be easily confused with the equality
operator. Example:
if (c++ = d++) { // AVOID! (Java disallows)
...
}
should be written as
if ((c++ = d++) != 0) {
...
}
Do not use embedded assignments in an attempt to improve run-time performance. This is the
job of the compiler. Example:
d = (a = b + c) + r; // AVOID!
should be written as
a = b + c;
d = a + r;
Miscellaneous Practices

1. Parentheses
It is generally a good idea to use parentheses liberally in expressions involving mixed operators
to avoid operator precedence problems. Even if the operator precedence seems clear to you, it
might not be to others—you shouldn’t assume that other programmers know precedence as well as you do.
if (a == b && c == d) // AVOID!
if ((a == b) && (c == d)) // USE

2. Returning Values Try to make the structure of your program match the intent. Example:
if (booleanExpression) {
return true;
} else {
return false;
}
should instead be written as
return booleanExpression;
Similarly,
if (condition) {
return x;
}
return y;
should be written as
return (condition ? x : y);
3. Expressions before ‘?’ in the Conditional Operator
If an expression containing a binary operator appears before the ? in the ternary ?: operator, it should be parenthesized. Example:
(x >= 0) ? x : -x; 

4. Special Comments
Use XXX in a comment to flag something that is bogus but works. Use FIXME to flag something that is bogus and broken.
Annamalai Thangaraj

Annamalai is working as Technical Lead in Leading Telecom company with 5+ years experience in Identity and Access Management , Telecom and Networks, BigData, Java, Spring, Struts, Hibernate, AngularJS, and Enterprise Web Application Development.

Website: Java Tutorials Corner

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Item Reviewed: Java Best Practice – Programming Practices Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Annamalai Thangaraj