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Tuesday, 11 July 2017

ls List contents of directories Linux Command


ls [options] [names]


List contents of directories. If no names are given, list the files in the current directory. With one or more names, list files contained in a directory name or that match a file name. names can include filename metacharacters. The options let you display a variety of information in different formats. The most useful options include -F, -R, -l, and -s. Some options don't make sense together (e.g., -u and -c).


-1, --format=single-column
Print one entry per line of output.

-a, --all
List all files, including the normally hidden files whose names begin with a period.

-b, --escape
Display nonprinting characters in octal and alphabetic format.

-c, --time-ctime, --time=status
List files by status change time (not creation/modification time).

--color =when
Colorize the names of files depending on the type of file. Accepted values for when are never, always, or auto.

-d, --directory
Report only on the directory, not its contents.

Print directory contents in exactly the order in which they are stored, without attempting to sort them.

List times in full, rather than using the standard abbreviations.

Long listing like -l, but don't show file owners.

Print sizes in kilobytes and megabytes.

Print a help message and then exit.

-i, --inode
List the inode for each file.

Display filenames without the flags assigned by -p or -f (default).

-k, --kilobytes
If file sizes are being listed, print them in kilobytes. This option overrides the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT.

-l, --format=long, --format=verbose
Long format listing (includes permissions, owner, size, modification time, etc.).

-m, --format=commas
Merge the list into a comma-separated series of names.

-n, --numeric-uid-gid
Like -l, but use group ID and user ID numbers instead of owner and group names.

Long listing like -l, but don't show group information.

-p, --filetype, --indicator-style=file-type
Mark directories by appending / to them.

-q, --hide-control-chars
Show nonprinting characters as ? (default for display to a terminal).

-r, --reverse
List files in reverse order (by name or by time).

-s, --size
Print file size in blocks.

Show nonprinting characters verbatim (default for printing to a file).

Similar to -h, but uses powers of 1,000 instead of 1,024.

-t, --sort=time
Sort files according to modification time (newest first).

-u, --time=atime, --time=access, --time=use
Sort files according to file-access time.

Print version information on standard output, then exit.

-x, --format=across, --format=horizontal
List files in rows going across the screen.

-v, --sort=version
Interpret the digits in names such as file.6 and file.6.1 as versions, and order filenames by version.

-w, --width=n
Format output to fit n columns.

-A, --almost-all
List all files, including the normally hidden files whose names begin with a period. Does not include the . and .. directories.

-B, --ignore-backups
Do not list files ending in ~ unless given as arguments.

-C, --format=vertical
List files in columns (the default format).

-D, --dired
List in a format suitable for Emacs dired mode.

-F, --classify, --indicator-style=classify
Flag filenames by appending / to directories, * to executable files, @ to symbolic links, | to FIFOs, and = to sockets.

-G, --no-group
In long format, do not display group name.

-H, --dereference-command-line
When symbolic links are given on the command line, follow the link and list information from the actual file.

-I, --ignore pattern
Do not list files whose names match the shell pattern pattern, unless they are given on the command line.

-L, --dereference
List the file or directory referenced by a symbolic link rather than the link itself.

-N, --literal
Display special graphic characters that appear in filenames.

-Q, --quote-name
Quote filenames with "; quote nongraphic characters.

-R, --recursive
List directories and their contents recursively.

-Rfile, --reload-state file
Load state from file before starting execution.

-S, --sort=size
Sort by file size, largest to smallest.

-U, sort=none
Do not sort files.

-X, sort=extension
Sort by file extension, then by filename.


ls -ltr

Reference : http://www.linuxdevcenter.com
Annamalai Thangaraj

Annamalai is working as Technical Lead in Leading Telecom company with 5+ years experience in Identity and Access Management , Telecom and Networks, BigData, Java, Spring, Struts, Hibernate, AngularJS, and Enterprise Web Application Development.

Website: Java Tutorials Corner

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Item Reviewed: ls List contents of directories Linux Command Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Annamalai Thangaraj